How Does Your Brain Know That Your Finger is Cut?
Your brain is part of one of your body’s nervous system. This system is one of the communication systems of your body. Nerves from your cut finger send messages to your brain.
The endocrine system is your body’s other communication system.
Following is a glossary of terms for these two systems.
A temporary reversal of neuronal cell membrane potential at one location that results in a conducted nerve impulse down an axon.
The division of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information toward the central nervous system, having gathered information about the body or environment.
amino acid based hormone
Hormones that are derived from a single amino acid. One of three principal classes of hormones, the other two being peptide and steroid hormones.
An endocrine gland that releases two hormones that work directly on target cells and four other hormones that regulate the production of hormones by other endocrine glands.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Substance that helps control how much water is either sent to the bladder (in urine) by the kidneys or retained in circulation. In a release controlled by the brain’s hypothalamus, ADH increases the permeability of both the distal nephron tubule and the n
Any foreign substance that elicits a response by the immune system. Certain proteins on the surface of an invading bacterial cell, for instance, act as antigens that trigger an immune response.
autonomic nervous system
That portion of the peripheral nervous system’s efferent division that provides involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
A single, large extension of the cell body of a neuron that carries signals away from the cell body toward other cells.
central nervous system (CNS)
The portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Thin outer covering of the region of the brain known as the cerebrum. Responsible for the highest human thinking and processing.
A fluid that circulates in both the brain and spinal cord, supplying nutrients, hormones, and immune system cells and providing the nervous tissue with protection against jarring injury.
The largest region of the human brain, responsible for much of the human capacity for higher mental functioning.
The coiled, fluid-filled, membranous portion of the inner ear in which vibrations are transformed into the nervous system signals perceived as
In human vision, photoreceptors that respond best to bright light and that provide color vision.
Extensions of a neuron that carry signals toward the neuronal cell body.
In flowering plants, the area, located at the base of the carpel, where fertilization of the egg and early development of the embryo occur. In animals, the female reproductive organ in which eggs develop.