The electrons in the outer energy level of an atom are called valence electrons. The maximum number of valence electrons is eight. The diagram show models for all the possible number of valence electrons and their arrangement.
The models with unpaired electrons are checked to indicate that they are examples of free radicals.
Free radicals may are may not be ions (particles with a positive or negative charge). Being charged does not make an atomic particle a free radical. Instead, with some exceptions, an atomic particle is a free radical because it has unpaired electrons.
Again, with some exceptions, the unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive. Free radicals are seem to be getting blamed for lots of health problems, including cancer and aging. UUM! Do you think maybe that the fountain of youth that Ponce de León searched for is still to be found? If so, how could the water make one young? Do you think it might have chemicals in the water that neutralized free radicals? Instead of searching for a fountain of youth, I suggest that you research Antioxidants. They are touted as being able to neutralize free radicals.
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