Persistence of Vision
Persistence of Vision
Persistence of Vision
I love this bird’s hairdo. It reminds me of a time when I told the beautician that I wanted something wild and crazy and then sat back and dozed. When I opened my eyes my hair was about 3 inches long all over my head. I got what I asked for. It was wild and crazy and very easy to wash. As to combing it, no need–it looked the same whether I did or didn’t comb it.
OOPS! I digress from the reason for picking this bird, which is the type of beak that it has. The shape and size of a bird’s beak and mouth helps it to catch food. Some birds, such as the Snowy Egret in the photo have long pointed beaks so they can spear their food, which includes fish, crabs, crayfish, frogs, snakes, insects, snails, worms. Unlike the Kingfisher, who is an aerial fisher, the Snowy Egret stands in water and spears fish that swim by.
Hummingbirds have a long beak that can open just like other birds. The ability of the hummingbird to such nectar from flowers is due to the bird’s long tube-like tongue, that is longer than its its beak.
The peel of an apple prevents oxygen from coming in contact with the chemicals inside the apple.
Cutting an apple breaks the cells of the apple. Thus the broken cells on the cut surface of the apple are exposed to oxygen in air.
There are a series of chemical reactions that begin when the apple cells are broken.
1. Each apple cell has organelles called chloroplasts and vacuoles. When sliced, these organelles, chloroplasts and vacuoles, release polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme and phenols .
2. In the presence of oxygen, the polyphenol oxidase enzymes rapidly oxidize the phenols forming quinones. This is an aerobic oxidation reaction, which means the phenols chemically combine with oxygen.
3. The quinones combine with each other forming a brown pigment called melanin. As the amount of melanin increases the darker will be the surface of the sliced apple.
In A Nut Shell!
The browning of cut fruit is due to oxidation, but this process is speeded up by an enzyme called polyphenol oxidase. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is also called tyrosinase
Enzymes are generally sensitive to changes in pH. The low pH of the acid in citrus fruit affects the weak ionic bonds that holds the structure of the polyphenol oxidase enzymes together. The change in the structure of an enzyme is called “denaturing.” A denatured enzyme can no longer do its job, thus denatured polyphenol oxidase cannot speed up the oxidation of the phenols.
The following video provides more information about stopping a cut apple from browning.
The closest distance for distinct, clear vision is called the near point. The general accepted distance is 10 inches (25 cm), but it is less for very young children and people with myopia (farsighted).
Discover For Yourself
Find the closest point where your eyes can form a clear image of an object viewed.
1. Hold an open book as close as possible to your face without touching your face.
2. Slowly move the book away from your face. Stop when you can read the print on the page. Then, move the book toward and away from your face until you find the closest distance the print can be from your eyes and have the sharpest, clear print.
(Note: If you wear reading glasses, repeat the experiment twice, first with your glasses and then without your glasses.)
3. Ask a helper to measure the distance the book is from your eyes. While the diagram shows a ruler being used, I suggest that you use a flexible measuring tape, such as the one shown.
This experiment is from Janice VanCleave’s Biology for Every Kid
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. Alexander was the middle son of Alexander Melville Bell and Eliza Grace Symonds. His mother was a portrait painter and accomplished musician. She was hard of hearing, but with the help of an ear tube, which was a cone-shaped tube with the smaller end held in her ear, she could hear some sounds. Alexander’s father was a well known teacher and author of textbooks on correct speech, as well as the inventor of “visible speech” (a code of symbols that indicated the position and action of the throat, tongue and lips in uttering various sounds), which helped hearing-impaired people speak.
Alexander, as well as others in his family, was very interested in learning about the human ability to hear and speak. He and his brothers made a model of the human skull that when attached to a bellows (a device whose sides are squeezed to pump out air) could scream “Ma Ma”.
Alexander also taught his dog to growl steadily while he manipulated the dog’s mouth and throat. As he did this, the dog seemed to say, ” Ow ah oo, ga?ma?ma”, meaning, “How are you grandmother?”
By 1870, both of Alexander’s brothers had died of tuberculous (a lung disease), so his parents moved to Brantford Ontario, Cananda to a healthier climate. In 1871, Alexander moved to Boston to pursue his goal to help the deaf by opening a school for teacher’s of the deaf. This school later became part of the Boston University where he became a professor of vocal physiology (study of how the body produces sound) and elocution (art of speaking clearly). Being interested in how the human body makes and receives sounds, he experimented with a real human ear he got from the medical school at Boston University. He attached a stalk of hay to the bones of the middle ear and then observed the hay when sound was directed into the ear. The sound caused the hay to move. This experiment led to his inventing a device called a phonautograph. When a person spoke into the phonautograph, a stretched skin vibrated causing a rod to move which traced out a pattern on a piece of smoked glass. Bell’s students could “see” their voice. Today sounds can be seen on different electronic instruments, such as the oscilloscope.
Bell had been experimenting with sound most of his life and while the telephone is what he is most known for, it was a telegraph that could carry more than one message at the same time that he was trying to invent. Working and thinking of this idea and remembering how singing into a piano caused the strings to vibrate gave him an idea on how to transmit and receive speech over electric wires. He had the idea but needed someone with more electrical knowledge so in 1875 he hired Thomas Watson who worked in an electrical shop. On March 10, 1876, Bell accidentally spilled acid on his clothes and shouted, “Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you.” Watson heard this now famous sentence in another room through the speaker of what is now called a telephone. Telephone is from the Greek word tele for “far off” and phone for “sound.” By July 1876, the Bell Telephone Company was in business. Within ten years there were over 150,000 telephones in the United States.
The year following his invention of the telephone, Bell married Mabel Hubbard, a deaf student in his class whom he had taught to speak. With income from his telephone invention, Bell was able to spend his life on other inventions and in working for the deaf.
He met six-year-old Helen Keller in 1887. Helen was both deaf and blind. Bell directed Helen’s parents to a school where they met Annie Sullivan, the teacher who taught Helen how to communicate with other people. Helen and Bell remained friends throughout his life and worked together to help people with disabilities. In order to communicate with Helen, Bell learned sign language (a language in which hand gestures are used to stand for different words of speech and also to represent the letters of the alphabet) and Braille (a system of writing for blind people, using raised dots for letters that one “reads” by feeling these with the fingertips). Helen could “hear” by feeling a person’s lips, as well as by feeling someone’s hand signals with her hands. She could “speak” by signing, but by the age of 10 she had also learned to speak out loud.
7.6.13 — From Donna Garner: Should be biggest pro-life week in Austin ever – Please wear BLUE, take bottles of water, and wear sneakers to go to Austin. If possible, do not sit in holding rooms but get out and be seen around the Capitol; the national media is watching and filming.
*Be sure to read what MoveOn.org has planned – petition to Texas Democrat Legislators to deny quorum (posted at bottom of this page).
MONDAY, JULY 8 — Senate Public Hearing, 10 A. M., Room E1.036 — Registration to begin at 9 A. M. — Capitol doors to open at 7 A. M.
MONDAY, JULY 8, 7:00 P. M. – #STAND4LIFE RALLY — south steps of Capitol – sponsored by numerous pro-life groups in Texas – should be biggest pro-life rally ever
TUESDAY, JULY 9, 10 A. M. — House convenes to take up HB 2, second and third/FINAL readings possible
WEDNESDAY/THURSDAY/FRIDAY — House & Senate FINAL votes
SB 1 and HB 2 are companion bills. If approved by both House and Senate without amendments, will go straight to Gov. Perry’s desk for signature –
If you plan to testify at these hearings and need information to support your statements, please use these resources:
5.17.13 – “Douglas Karpen, Who Kills Babies Born Alive” – by Steven Ertelt — http://www.lifenews.com/2013/05/17/new-web-site-exposes-douglas-karpen-who-kills-babies-born-alive/
5.17.13 – “Houston doctor accused of illegal abortions” – by Brian Rogers, Houston Chronicle —http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/houston/article/Houston-doctor-accused-of-illegal-abortions-4519565.php
7.3.13 – YouTube video — “A Tale of Two Texas Senators: Wendy Davis and Donna Campbell” – 6-minute video produced by #Stand4Life — http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RxlqM6JFSCk&ct=t%28Education_Communication_Teams_Conference_call_on_W%29&gooal=eyJjaWQiOiIyOTUzYWNiZGFhIiwidGFnIjoiRWR1Y2F0aW9uX0NvbW11bmljYXRpb25fVGVhbXNfQ29uZmVyZW5jZV9jYWxsX29uX1ciLCJ1aWQiOiI1MjYyZjY3NzQxZTNjZDZkYTJjYjI5ZmIwIn0%3D|ZG9ubmFnZ2FybmVyQGdtYWlsLmNvbQ==
6.28.13 — Catholics upset that director of national Catholic board served as treasurer of abortionist Sen. Wendy Davis’s campaign. — http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/senior-u.s.-bishops-official-helped-elect-abortion-lobbys-new-national-hero
6.27.13 — Information on fetal pain and also Dr. Kermit Gosnell’s “House of Horrors” — http://educationviews.org/texas-sen-wendy-davis-murderer-in-chief/
7.2.13 – “DNC and Planned Parenthood Funded Craigslist Ad to Recruit Pro-Aborts to Protest in Austin for $1,300 to $2,200 a Month” — CNS-News — http://cnsnews.com/news/article/craigslist-ad-recruited-paid-protesters-oppose-abortion-legislation-texas#sthash.OkPQbvAq.dpuf
*Sent to Donna Garner on 6.6.13 at 1:06 P. M. – Excerpts taken from:
Dear Texas MoveOn member,
I’m Candice Adams Roma, a MoveOn member in Austin, TX, and I started a petition to Rep. Mary Gonzalez (TX-75), Sen. Wendy Davis (TX-10), and the Texas Legislature which says:
The people of Texas are asking to you to continue to protect women’s reproductive health and safety by denying a quorum during the Second Special Session of the Texas Legislature.
[Gives link to petition]
There are only 19 Republican Texas state Senators. Without the participation of Democratic lawmakers, they cannot have the quorum necessary to do business.
A special session can run for as long as 30 days, so there is no chance of a filibuster or parliamentary delay to prevent the passage of a draconian anti-choice bill that would severely limit women’s reproductive health options in Texas…
In designing the labels, I created color combinations that modeled color changes in fall leaves. For example, some green leaves turn yellow in the fall.
Leaves are green due to the presence of the green pigment called chlorophyll.
The yellow color in leaves is due the presence of the pigment called carotene. Carotene is the name for a group of pigments that have yellow to orange colors.
Since chlorophyll and carotene are both present in leaves at the same time, why are leaves green in the spring and summer, then turn yellow in the fall?
Green leaves have more chlorophyll than carotene. in leaves that green leaves. In the spring and summer the green chlorophyll masks or covers up the yellow carotene. But, in the fall, due to changes in the time duration of sunlight during the day and nighttime, physical changes occur in the stem connecting the leaf to the plant (tree). A layer of cells starts to grow across the end of the stem cutting off the flow of nutrients to and from the leaf. Without the proper nutrients, chlorophyll stop being produced. As the old chlorophyll molecules break down and are not replaced, the yellow carotene molecules that have been present all along, are not visible.
In other words, green chlorophyll masks the yellow carotene.
Once I understood the science behind the leaf color change, I worked on combining chemicals that could model the color change from green to yellow.
FACTS To Consider:
1. Blue and yellow paint produces a green paint solution.
I needed a mixture that produced a green color, but could change to yellow.
2. Yellow acrylic paint does not change with temperature fluction.
3. Heat activated blue thermochromic dyes will turn clear when heated.
I needed a blue thermochromic dye that was blue in color at room temperature. This dye must have a low heat activation temperature, the temperature at which it would turn clear. The heat from your hands had to be enough to reach the dye’s activation temperature.
4. My plan was to mix yellow acrylic paint with blue thermochromic dye in a ratio so that the mixture was green at room temperature. Then, when heated the blue would turn clear and only the yellow would be visible.
While leaves to not reverse back to their original green color, the labels do change back to the room temperature color of green. The labels can be used again and again since the thermochromic dye is reversible and will continue to change when heated and reverse back to original color when cooled.
For more information about the labels in this kit, see Color_Kit_Brochure_Sheet_2
The thermochromic dyes and labels are produced by LCR Hallcrest.
Moths of economic significance:
Phenotype is the outward physical manifestation of an organisms (living things) determined by the genotype, which is the internally coded, inheritable, information called DNA.
The dog has long pink hair. Having long hair is a phenotype, but the pink coloring is a dye. The dog’s natural hair color is white.
All phenotypes are inherited and include the size and shape of a bird’s beak, and the spines on a cactus.
DNA stands for the chemical name, deoxyribonucleic acid.
While DNA might be considered a topic for high school, but elementary student can easily separate DNA. See the DNA Index for ideas for Extracting DNA.
A Great Science Project would be to compare the growth of different types of carnivorous
plants. The Link, All About Sundew Plants, not only provides information about sundews,
but provides information about growing these plants, even from seed.