What is a Matter Classification Flowchart?
A flowchart is a type of tree diagram or organizing chart with the most general term at the top.
A Basic Matter Flowchart
1. Start with matter at the top.
2. Show the Matter Category divided into two groups: Pure Substance and Mixture
3. Divide each of the two groups into two other groups.
Pure Substance: elements and compounds
Mixtures: heterogeneous and homogeneous
The Matter Flowchart continues with examples for each groups.
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Isomerization is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same elements and exactly the same number of atoms of each element. The difference between the two molecules is how the elements are arranged e.g. ABC changes to BCA. Each molecular form is called an isomer.
Thermochromic and photochromic materials, such as leuco dyes exhibit isomerization in which one molecular form is colorless and the other is colored.
Thermochromic molecules undergo isomerization in response to temperature fluctuations.
Photochromic molecules undergo isomerization in response to UV light.
Rust is a common name for Iron Oxide, the chemical formed when iron oxidizes (combines with oxygen).
The equation for rusting or the oxidation of iron is:
2Fe + 3O 2 ——–> Fe2O3
Corrosion is the deterioration of physical properties of a material due to a reaction with its environment.
Corrosion is caused by different things, such as the cracking of a polymer due to exposure to sunlight and the oxidation of metals.
Lately there have been several water leaks in my house. One was due to an old water heater that has not been used for years. I must admit that the beautifully colored crusted areas on the pipes caught my eye. If you look close you can see dark blue crystals. While I was intrigued with the colors and the chemistry behind their production, most of the excitement was dampened by the plumber’s bill. But I did learn something new from him. Seems that the corrosion started because two metals were in contact with each other. I later discovered that this is called two metal corrosion or galvanic corrosion.
The term corrosion seems to be a catch all for stuff deteriorating because of chemical reactions. My water pipes were made of different kinds of metals–copper, zinc, and iron–thus all the different colors of galvanic corrosion.
Oxidation is the chemical combination with oxygen.
Iron generally corrodes by combining with oxygen forming a reddish-brown chemical commonly called rust.
The equation for the rusting (oxidation) of iron is:
4Fe + 3O 2 ——-> 2Fe2O3
Zinc also corrodes by oxidation. The white corrosion in the photo is zinc oxide, commonly called zinc white.
The equation for the oxidation of zinc is:
2Zn + O2 —–> 2ZnO
Copper corrosion, except for water pipes, is desired by artists. Copper sculptures placed outdoors as well as copper used for roofs corrode and form what is called patina.
The corrosion of copper involves oxidation plus a reaction of other environmental chemicals, such as water and carbon dioxide. The summation of copper corrosion producing copper carbonate (CuCO3) the blue-green color on the pipe in the picture is:
2 Cu (s) + O2+ H2O (g) + CO2 ? Cu(OH)2 + CuCO3 (s)
This is not a one step process. The copper first oxidizes forming cupric oxide (copper I oxide) . The water and carbon dioxide form carbonic acid (H2CO3), then the copper I oxide and carbonic acid react forming copper hydroxide and copper carbonate.
Read more: http://www.physicsforums.com
A solution is a homogeneous mixture made of two parts:
1. A solvent, which is generally the greater amount and is what does the dissolving.
2. A solute, which is the part that is being dissolved and is the part that breaks into its smallest particles and is equally distributed throughout the solvent.
- amount of solute increases and the amount of solute remains the same.
- amount of solute remains the same and the amount of solute decreases.
2. Use two glasses marked A and B. Pour 1/4 cup of water in glass A . Pour 1/2 cup of water in glass B. Add 6 teaspoons of sugar to each glass and stir well. Taste each solution. Which ratio of sugar to water has the greater concentration of sugar? Glass A ratio= 6 teaspoon sugar: 1/4 cup water Glass B ratio = 6 teaspoons sugar: 1/2cup water Answer: Both glasses contain the same amount of sugar (solute). Glass A has less water (solute) for the sugar to spread out in. As a result, the molecules of sugar are closer together than they are in glass B with more water. Glass A has the greater concentration of sugar.
Ink is a mixture of a dye and a solvent. When ink is used on a surface, when the solvent evaporates the dye is left on the surface.
Inks used for the Janice VanCleave Color Changing Products are water soluble, meaning the solvent is water. The colorants in the color changing inks include a special type of dye called Leuco Dye. Leuco dye molecules have two structural forms, one form is colorless and transparent to visible light. The other leuco dye molecule structure is colored, meaning the molecules absorb part of the visible light spectrum and reflect the remaining part of the light spectrum. The changes in the structural forms of Leuco dye molecules are in response to a specific stimulus.
For more information see Leuco dyes.
Mixtures are the combination or blending of two or more things. There are two different types of mixtures:
Heterogeneous mixtures have an uneven distribution of the different things that have been mixed.
1. Fruit salad made up of apples, oranges, bananas, etc….
2. Combination of iron filings (prepared by grinding up a piece of iron, such as an iron nail) and sand.
3. Rocks are heterogeneous mixtures of different minerals.
Note: While the materials mix to form a heterogeneous mixture keep their own individual physical properties, not all materials in a heterogeneous mixtures are easily separated. The different minerals in rocks for example need special processes to separate.
Homogeneous mixtures have an even distribution of the different things added together.
Solutions are homogeneous mixtures. Solutions are a combination of two parts, a solute and a solvent. When two parts are mixed, the part with the larger volume is generally called the solute. Thus, the solute is the substance that breaks up and is spread throughout the solute.
A sugar solution is a mixture of sugar and water. Sugar is a molecular compound, meaning the smallest part of the sugar compound is a molecule. When sugar crystals dissolve in water, the molecules making up the sugar crystals pull apart and separate molecules of sugar are spread evenly throughout the water. Every drop of the sugar solution has the same number of sugar and water molecules.
Note: Table salt (sodium chloride) is an ionic compound made up of positively charged sodium ions and negatively charged chloride ions. A table salt solution is a mixture of table salt and water. When table salt is dissolved in water, unlike table sugar (sucrose) which is a molecular compound, table salt breaks up into ions. The sodium ions and chloride ions spread evenly throughout the water.
Adding Rigor–This section is not complete.
1. Properties of solutions are called colligative properties.
Colligative properties depend on the concentration of the solution.
Colligative properties include freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, vapor pressure lowering and osmotic pressure.
2. Solvation (Dissolution) is the process of surrounding the solute in a solution with the solvent. Water molecules are polar, meaning they have a positive and negative side. The oxygen atom in each molecule of water has a slightly negative charge while the hydrogen atoms have a slightly positive charge. When sodium chloride dissolves in water, each positive sodium ion is surrounded by water molecules with the oxygen atom pointing toward the sodium ion. The negative chloride ions are surrounded by water molecules with the positive hydrogen ions pointing toward the negative chloride ion.
3. Solution Concentration
Saturated–No more solute can be dissolved at a specific temperature (room temperature).
A Way to Produce a saturated Solution at Room Temperature
I experimented with Cotton Candy, which is a fine webbing of sugar molecules.
I placed the cotton candy on a plate and using a straw let one drop of water fall on the puffy pink candy. Voom! A big hole appeared in the fluffy candy and red drops of liquid started running through the candy as if moving through tiny tubes. Each drop of water did the same thing and finally the candy had disappeared leaving only a small puddle of thick red liquid on the plate as well as on the paper cone the candy had been spun around. There were some sugar crystals on the paper cone as well as in the thick saturated solution in the plate.
Supersaturated Solution is when a solvent is heated above room temperature and more solute than will dissolve at room temperature is dissolved.
Types of Solutions
Solid + Solid
Alloy a homogeneous solution of two or more metals that have been melted, blended evenly together, then allow to cool; also a metal with any nonmetal where the two are evenly blended, such as iron and carbon forming steel.
Solid + Gas–
Gas + Gas– Air
Gas + liquid –Carbon dioxide dissolved in a soda.
Most mixtures can be separated by Physical means.
Methods for separating Homogeneous Mixtures
Methods for separating Heterogeneous Mixtures
A solution is a homogeneous mixture. This mean the mixture is the same throughout.
There are different kinds of solution as shown in the chart.
A solution is made by dissolving a solute in a solvent. The solute is the part that breaks into the tiniest particles making up the solute, then these particles are dispersed (evenly spread) throughout the solvent.
Generally, the solvent is the part with the greater volume.
Solid Compound + Water
There are two types of compounds, ionic compounds, such as table salt and covalent compounds, such as table sugar.
The video very nicely describes what happens when table salt (sodium chloride) and table sugar (sucrose) dissolve in water.
What is the difference between elements and atoms?
Elements are pure substances that cannot be broken down to different substances.
Atoms are the smallest part of an element that retains the properties of the element.
A chemical symbol is an abbreviated way of representing the name of an element. Symbols are made of one or two letters. If one letter is use, such as H for hydrogen, the letter is capitalized.
If the symbol has two letters, such as Ca for Calcium, the first letter is capitalized and the second letter is lower case.
The periodic table shows all the know elements in order of their atomic number, which is the number of protons in the atoms of each element. In other words, all the atoms of a specific element have the same atomic number. Thus, the atomic number is how elements are identified.
Click the Periodic table for a copy of the table with information about each element.
Know that elements are the smallest
Why students need books
To provide interrelating information.
For example, if students use the internet they might come up with the following definitions.
abundance-having plenty of what you need
trend-a tendency or inclination
With a textbook, they would find how these terms are used in connection to the subject being studied, which is the periodic table. The textbook would provide the following information.
Abundance is the percent of each part of the whole. The two most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust is Silicon and Oxygen. The abundance of Silicon is about 47% and Oxygen is 28%, thus together, Silicon and Oxygen make up about 75% of the materials in Earth’s crust.
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
Mass is how much stuff something is made of or contains.
Space is the volume that something occupies.
The states of matter, include gas, liquid, and solid.
Air is a gas, thus is an example of matter. While most gases are invisible, never the less, they have mass and take up space.
Use an empty plastic sack, such as an empty plastic bread sack.
1. Fill the sack with air by holding the top open and moving the sack through the air.
2. Close the sack by twisting the opening and holding it with your hand.
3. With your free hand, squeeze the sack as shown.
4. Look into the sack.
The sack is blown up, but appears to be empty. The sack resists being squeezed. This means the content of the sack takes up space.
Demonstrate that Air Has Mass
Mass is a measure of the amount of “stuff” something has. For example, if you fill two bread sacks with different amounts of air, the one with the small amount of air has less mass. The bag with the largest amount air has more mass.
I. Design an investigation that compares the mass of different amounts of air (exhaled breath).
1. Use two balloons of equal size to hold different amounts of air–inflate with your breath.
2. Design a balance, such as suspending a yardstick or meter stick so that the stick rotates about its center. This is the fulcrum of the balance (the point the stick rotates about).
3. Hang the largest balloon near one end of the stick. Secure with tape. The mass of this balloon will be m1.
3. Hang the smaller balloon on the opposite side and position so that the stick hangs as parallel to the floor as possible. The mass of this balloon will be m2.
4. Calculate the ratio of the masses of each balloon to the distance they are from the center, the fulcrum of the stick.
In other words, measure how far is m1 and m2 are from the fulcrum. Use this equation to show the ratio of the the masses of the balloons. m1/m2 = d1/d2
II. Mass vs. Inertia
Design and calibrate an inertia balance. Use the balance to measure the mass of objects.
Clues can be found here:
What is the difference between atoms and molecules?
Atoms are the smallest part of an element that retains the properties of the element.
Molecules are made of two or more atoms bonded together to form one particle with specific characteristics.
All matter is made up of atoms which may combine to form molecules.
Some elements, such as neon, Ne, are made up of single atoms. Other elements, such as oxygen, is made up of molecules. The molecules of oxygen have two atoms of oxygen, O2. The symbol for the oxygen element is O. The symbol or one can say, the formula for the molecules of oxygen is, O2. There is another type of oxygen molecule called ozone, O3. The subscript 3 describes the ozone molecule as having three bonded atoms of oxygen.
These diatomic elements aka diatomic molecules should be memorized. H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2,
What is the difference between molecules and compounds?
Compound are substances with two or more different kinds of elements bonded together. Water is a compound made of elements hydrogen and oxygen. Table sugar is a compound made of elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Some compounds are made up of molecules, such as table sugar, known as sucrose. The molecular formula for sucrose is C12H22O11. This is read as 12 atoms of carbon, 22 atoms of hydrogen, 11 atoms of oxygen.
The molecular formula for sucrose tell how many atoms of each kind of element makes up one molecule, but does not tell how the atoms are bonded together.
Structural and skeletal formulas do give information about how the elements are bonded together. Compounds made up of molecules have covalent bonds (bonds in which the atoms share electrons). Each single covalent bond is indicated by a single line in structural and skeletal formulas. Each covalent bond represents the sharing of two electrons between the connected atoms.
Count the number of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in each of the formulas. Do they add up to the molecular formula for sucrose, which is C12H22,O11?
FYI: Each carbon atom should have 4 connecting bonds. You will find this true in the structural formula, but the skeletal formula only shows what is connected to the rings. You are suppose to know that carbons have 4 connecting covalent bonds. Compare the two formulas to see where carbon and hydrogen atoms are left off in the skeletal formula.
The structural formula for sucrose is:
A chromophore is a group of atoms in a chemical compound that are responsible for the color of the compound.
Pigments in leaves are compounds with chromophores. Chlorophyll is a green pigment with a chromophore that reflects green light.
Chromophores absorbs, reflect and/or transmit visual light energy.
The color of reflected visual light enters your eyes and is absorbed by special cells on the back surface inside your eyes. These cells send a message to your brain. Your brain decodes the message and voila’ the object has color. For leaves with chlorophyll, the reflected light is perceived as a shade of green.
Even though the same light energy is reflected from the leaf, the color of the leaf may not seem to be the same color to every person. We assume that most people see the same colors, but I always wonder about this. After all, what you see depends on a lot of information being transferred. Vision is a very interesting topic to read about.
More to Know and Find Out About
The chromophore is the part of an organic molecule that affects visible light, thus it can be said that the chromophore section is a functional group or moiety of the molecule that is responsible for color.
The chromophore of some organic chemicals, such as Leuco dyes, change color in response to different stimuli. Some Leuco dyes change color in response to fluctuations in temperature and other in response to being exposed to UV light. These changes, which can be permanent but often are reversible, depend on changes in the chromophore.